Learning Literacy Glossary

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The smallest sound part in spoken language, like /c/ in "cat".

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to identify and play with individual sounds in spoken words.


Reading instruction on understanding how letters and groups of letters link to sounds to form letter-sound relationships and spelling patterns.

Phonological Awareness

The ability to recognize that spoken words are made up of individual sound parts.

Phonological Memory

The ability to store and recall the sounds of speech in short term memory. It is distinct from phonological awareness, which only refers to the ability to identify sounds.

Phonological Processing

The ability to quickly and correctly hear, store, recall, and make different speech sounds.


How we use language to communicate.

Print Awareness

The understanding that what is read is linked to the words on the page, rather than to the pictures.