What Dyslexia Is
Dyslexia affects about one in every five individuals, making it the most commonly diagnosed learning disability. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) describes dyslexia as a brain-based learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. Other definitions (e.g., First Step Act - § 3635; International Dyslexia Association; Mayo Clinic) describe dyslexia in a similar way. The reading impairments associated with dyslexia are also unexpected in that individuals with dyslexia typically demonstrate otherwise typical intellectual functioning and developmental growth. To further understand what dyslexia is – and what it is not – it may be helpful to examine the major elements of the definition.
Dyslexia is Brain-Based
For individuals with dyslexia, specific portions of the brain typically associated with important reading processes may not develop or function in the same ways that they do in individuals without dyslexia. Neuroimaging research suggests that individuals with dyslexia – compared to individuals without – may have fundamental differences in brain regions linked with reading and language. These differences are primarily, although not completely, noted in the left hemisphere of the brain.
- Dyslexia affects the brain areas associated with detection and processing of sounds and their corresponding letters. These letter-sound linkages are fundamental to reading. When these brain regions do not function efficiently to make these connections, reading development is affected.
- Dyslexia can be inherited. Children born with the neurological impairments associated with dyslexia are more likely than other children to have family members with the impairment. Many, but not all, of these children will eventually experience reading difficulties.
Dyslexia Impairs the Ability to Read
- Difficulty with phonological processing inhibits the ability to effectively decode letters into blended sounds to form words. A fundamental phonological processing problem may “block” access to other more advanced aspects of reading, such as word identification and comprehension.
- Difficulty with spelling may be recognized in an inability to efficiently write the letters comprising words from memory. Increased time needed to spell words and spelling errors may be apparent.
- Difficulty with rapid visual-verbal responding may be evident when it is increasingly difficult to quickly verbalize the letters and words appearing in print when prompted to do so.
What Dyslexia Is Not
Dyslexia is related to reading difficulties, not difficulties that arise from intellectual functioning.
- Dyslexia does not imply the individual cannot read. People with dyslexia can learn to read with evidence-based explicit instruction, but may still have to put forth more effort.
- Dyslexia does not otherwise impact the brain structure or functioning, or the intellectual, imaginative, or emotional functioning of the individual. In non-reading areas, abilities of those with dyslexia mirror those without dyslexia.
- Individuals with dyslexia do not necessarily see and write letters or words backwards. Dyslexia is associated with brain-based phonological impairments, not visual problems.
Stanley, C. & Petscher, Y. (2017). Defining Dyslexia. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from http://improvingliteracy.org
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (n.d.). What are reading disorders? Retrieved from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/reading/conditioninfo/pages/disorders.aspx
Dyslexia is a brain-based learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read.
The research reported here is funded by awards to the National Center on Improving Literacy from the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, in partnership with the Office of Special Education Programs (Award #: S283D160003). The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of OESE, OSEP, or the U.S. Department of Education. Copyright © 2023 National Center on Improving Literacy. https://improvingliterarcy.org