Commonalities Across Definitions of Dyslexia
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Miciak, J., & Fletcher, J. M. (2020). The critical role of instructional response for identifying dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53(5), 343-353.
INTERNATIONAL DYSLEXIA ASSOCIATION
(Lyon et al., 2003)
BRITISH DYSLEXIA ASSOCIATION
THE ROSE REPORT
INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES-10 (WHO, 2013) FIRST STEP ACT
(H.R.5682 - FIRST STEP ACT, 2018)
CORE DIMENSIONS OF DYSLEXIA
- Instructional Factors
Miciak and Fletcher (2020) identified shared dimensions derived from common definitions of dyslexia including:
Origin: Dyslexia is a brain-based disorder that is frequently associated with difficulties in phonological processing, cognitive processing, or both.
Attributes: Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in foundational skills that involve the ability to read and spell words accurately and fluently. It also involves unexpected difficulties in reading in relation to other cognitive abilities.
Instructional Factors: Dyslexia and the reading difficulties associated with it are not the result of lack of access or exposure to phonics instruction.
National Center on Improving Literacy (2022). Commonalities Across Definitions of Dyslexia. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from http://improvingliteracy.org.
- British Dyslexia Association. (2007). Definition of dyslexia. http://www.actiondyslexia.co.uk/view-article/Defining-Dyslexia
- H.R.5682 - FIRST STEP Act. (2018, May 23) retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/5682/text
- Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–14.
- Rose, J. (2009). Identifying and teaching children and young people with dyslexia and literacy difficulties. http://www.thedyslexia-spldtrust.org.uk/media/downloads/inline/the-roser...
- World Health Organization. (2013). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders: Clinical descriptions
- and diagnostic guidelines.
This infographic highlights common definitions of dyslexia, and identifies core dimensions of dyslexia shared across those definitions.
The research reported here is funded by awards to the National Center on Improving Literacy from the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, in partnership with the Office of Special Education Programs (Award #: S283D160003). The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of OESE, OSEP, or the U.S. Department of Education. Copyright © 2023 National Center on Improving Literacy. https://improvingliterarcy.org